JUNE 3, 1912— JUNE 13, 1913
The Normal Quarterly
Louisiana State Normal
VOL. 1 JULY 1, 1912 No. 3
entered at the post office at Natchitoches , La., as second-class mail matter.
Digitized by the Internet Archive
CALENDAR FOR 1911-1912.
Annual Sermon to Graduates 11 A. M. May 19, 1912
Exercises of Religious Organizations.. 8 P. M., May 19, 1912
Address to Alumni 8 P. M., May 21, 1912
Intersoeiety Contest 8 P. M., May 22, 1912
Graduation Exercises 10 A. M., May 23, 1912
Summer Quarter and Summer School.
Spring Vacation May 25 to June 2, 1912
Dormitories Open Sunday, June 2, 1912
Enrolment and Examinations Monday, June 3, 1912
Class Work Begins Tuesday, June 4, 1912
Final Examinations August 7 to 9, 1912
Summer Quarter Ends Saturday, August 10, 1912
Dormitories Open Sunday, September 22, 1912
Enrolment and Examinations Monday, September 23, 1912
Term Begins Tuesday, September 24, 1912
Term Closes Friday, December 13, 1912
Mid-winter Vacation December 14 to December 29,1912
Term Begins Monday, December 30, 1912
Winter Term Closes Friday, March 21, 1913
Term Begins Monday, March 24, 1913
Term Closes Friday, June 13, 1913
The Normal Quarterly
BOARD OF ADMINISTRATORS.
ITis Excellency, J. Y. Sanders Governor of Louisiana
Hon. T. H. Harris
State Superintendent of Public Education,
V. L. Roy : . President State Normal School,
Hon. J. C. Foster First District
Hon. Henry Bernstein Second District,
Judge A. J. Laf argue Second District
Hon. Solon Farrnbacher Fourth District
Dr. L. Fourgeaud Fifth District
Dr. Z. T. G-allion Resident Administrator
OFFICERS OF THE BOARD.
Gov. J. Y. Sanders, President Baton Rouge
Hon. J. C. Foster, Vice-President Shreveport
Mr. Edward Phillips, Treasurer Natchitoches
.Mr. T. P. Chaplin, Secretary Natchitoches
The Normal Quarterly
SUMMER SCHOOL STUDENT BODY. JULY, 1911.
The Normal Quarterly
Victor Leander Roy,
Heber Hinds Ryan,
Principal Training Department,
School Administration, Applied Psychology.
Miss Jessie E. Bowden,
Principles and Methods of Teaching.
Miss Roberta Newell,
History of Education, Sociology.
Miss Helena Lydia Messerschmidt,
Psychology, Physical Training.
Leon Albert Davis,
Mrs. Lizzie Carter McVoy,
Miss Dean Edwards Varnado,
Miss Orra E. Carroll,
Miss Mabel Moore,
Peter Thompson Hedges,
Robert Edgar Bobbitt,
Clarence Gilbert Pool, M. D.,
Robert Whitthorne Winstead,
John Corbly South,
Ltlltane D 'Ery,
The Normal Quarterly
Cyrus Jay Brown,
Principal Department Rural Education, Rural Econo-
mics, Rural School Management.
John Wesley Bateman,
Agriculture, Industrial Geography.
Francis E. Merriman, Jr.,
Dairying, Farm Animals, Farm Machinery.
Arch Milburn Hopper,
Manual Training, Shop Practice.
Miss Harriet F. Glendon,
Domestic Art and Science.
Miss May Phillips,
Miss Isabel Williamson,
Henry Wallace Stopher,
Public School Music, Leader of Band.
Miss Bessie Virginia Russell,
Critic Teacher, First Grade.
Miss Jemmie Nelson,
Critic Teacher, Second Grade.
Miss Carrie Alicia Dickson,
Critic Teacher, Third Grade.
Miss Bess Ashton Graham,
Critic Teacher, Fourth Grade.
Miss Carmen Breazeale,
Critic Teacher, Fifth Grade.
Miss Edna Levy,
Critic Teacher, Sixth Grade.
Miss Augusta Nelken,
Critic Teacher, Seventh Grade.
John Edward Guardia,
Critic Teacher, Eight and Ninth Grades.
.Miss Amelia Eustatia Gaulden,
Critic Teacher, Tenth and Eleventh Grades.
^liss Anna Maud VanHoose,
The Normal Quarterly
Miss Eva A. Norris,
Piano and Voice.
Miss Ethel Kennedy,
Piano and Violin.
Miss Mary Louise Dickinson,
Mrs. Henry Hawkins,
Mrs. Lillie M. Keane.
Mrs. M. V. Wildesex,
J. C. Monroe,
Leven Louis McCook,
Robin L. Smith,
Superintendent of Grounds.
T. J. Weaver,
W. T. Row,
ADDITIONAL INSTRUCTORS FOR 1912 SUMMER
Principal DeRidder High School.
H. M. Culter,
Kansas State Normal School.
A. M. Hendon,
Superintendent West Feliciana.
D. G. Lunsford,
Principal Arcadia High School.
L. L. Perrault,
Principal Bunkie High School.
Miss Ruth M. Thompson,
Kidder Institute, Kidder, Mo.
The Normal Quarterly
SPECIAL LECTURERS FOR SUMMER SCHOOL.
L. J. Alleman,
State Institute Conductor.
A. E. Bath,
Superintendent Natchitoches Parish.
J. H. Bres,
Superintendent West Baton Rouge Parish.
C. E. Byrd,
Superintendent Caddo Parish.
Jno. M. Foote,
Superintendent Terrebonne Parish.
W. S. Laf argue,
Superintendent Lafourche Parish.
J. J. Mixon,
Superintendent Winn Parish.
D. B. Sho WALTER,
Superintendent Rapides Parish.
Chas F. Trudeau,
Superintendent Pointe Coupee Parish.
E. H. Turner,
Superintendent Caldwell Parish.
The Normal Quarterly
LOUISIANA STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.
The Normal School was established by Act of the General
Assembly of Louisiana July 7, 1884. The State Board of Edu-
cation located the school at Natchitoches, and the buildings and
grounds of the Convent of the Sacred Heart were bought by
the Parish of Natchitoches and given to the school.
The first session began November 1, 1885. Dr. Edward E.
Sheib was president from 1885 to 1888, Colonel Thomas D. Boyd
from 1888 to 1896, Mr. B. C. Caldwell from 1896 to 1908, and
Dr. Jas. B. Aswell from 1908 to 1911.
The Act of establishment declares that the school shall be
maintained "for the benefit of such white persons of either
sex as may desire and intend to teach in the public schools of
Louisiana. ' '
The Normal School is maintained by the State to train
teachers for the public schools.
The necessary equipment of the succesful teacher includes
wholesome personality, sound scholarship and technical skill.
The first of these cannot be furnished by any school; it comes
by inheritance and early enviroment; but it is the function of
the Normal School to enlarge and strengthen it. and to add
to it the qualifications of liberal learning and teaching power.
The course of training is planned with these ends in view.
The first two years of the course aim at thoroughness in mastery
of the subjects of the public school course, while the last two
years are given chiefly to the study of education and to teaching
in the practice school.
The conditions maintained at the Normal School give an
environment that tends steadily to develop character and capac-
ity for work. The course of study, the professional training, the
companionship of hundreds of young men and women engaged
in a common life-work, the intimate contact with many strong
teachers, and the lectures and addresses given by scholarly men
10 The Normal Quarterly
from all parts of the country, help to establish high ideals of
service. The stimulating influence of the literary societies, the
opportunity to hear really good music, to see some good pictures
and statuary, and to use the library, with its thousands of books
and ample periodical literature, help to refine the taste, quicken
the appreciation and strengthen the love of learning.
The well organized practice school, the new manual training
rooms, the laboratories and library, the ventilating system in the
academic building, the baths and screens in the dormitories, the
beautiful grounds, with forest, lake and swimming pool, guar-
antee a delightful experience to those who come to take advan-
tage of the excellent courses offered.
Of all places in Louisiana, none surpasses, in historical im-
portance and interest, the town and parish of Natchitoches, once
the haunt of the Natchitoches and Doustiony Indians. Indeed, it
may be said that very few points in the Southwest are more re-
plete with historical associations or played more important a
role in the pioneer days of French, Spanish and English Amer-
ica. One of the best known and most important points on the
old San Antonio trail, it was the scene of strife and contest, out
of which the European settler emerged triumphant. Here,
within sight of the Normal School, are the ruins of the old
French Fort; to the south-east is the spot where St. Denis, in
defense of the French, slaughtered more than four score Natchez
Indians and practically exterminated the tribe; here are buried
men and women of noble lineage; and here, in the veins of
living men, flows blood of some of the bravest heroes that ever
set foot on American soil.
The Normal School, situated at the south end of the town
and within its corporate limits, occupies an elevated position at
the south-eastern extremity of the Natchitoches pine hills. Its
elevation affords a view of the beautiful, historic, alluvial coun-
try to the east and south and ensures perfect drainage. Its per-
manent dining hall and dormitories, the living quarters of the
school, are being erected amidst pine trees, in a virgin pine
forest, thus ensuring the most salubrious conditions possible.
The Normal Quarterly 11
Natchitoches is a town of 4,000 inhabitants, situated a little
northwest of the center of the State, on the Texas and Pacific
and the Louisiana and Northwest Railways, 150 miles northwest
of Baton Rouge, and 70 miles southeast of Shreveport. The
town is 200 years old and is full of historic interest.
BUILDINGS AND LAND.
Academic Building. — The main academic building, erected
at a cost of $116,000, contains thirty-four class rooms, two large
laboratories for physics, chemistry, botany and zoology, five
music rooms, cloak and store rooms, and a handsome auditorium
with a seating capacity of 750. In the basement rooms are the
departments of domestic science, handwork, and manual train-
Dining Hall. — This is a two-story concrete structure at the
western extremity of the dormitory court. It was erected during
1911. The main dining room has accommodation for 1,000
students. The kitchen, thoroughly equipped, is fire-proof. The
fire-proof pantries, a work room for the preparation of food, two
offices for the matron, a chafing-dish room, a linen room, and
a reception room complete the first floor. The second story con-
sists of sixteen bed-rooms for young lady students, with bath-
room and all sanitary accommodations. The matron's quarters
are on this floor. Two concrete walks lead from the academic
court to the dining hall.
Concrete Dormitory. — This two-story building, erected in
1910, has forty-six commodious rooms, accommodating ninety-
two lady students. It forms part of one side of the new dormi-
tory court. Its basement offers ample bath-room facilities, with
sanitary closets on both floors as well as in the basement.
Other Dormitories. — The school uses also for dormitory
purposes six other buildings, known as East Hall, West Hall,
Old Dining Room Building, Model School, Boyd Hall, and the
Concrete Laundry. — All students in the normal boarding
elub are required to have their clothes laundered at the school's
new steam laundry. This is a one-story, fire-proof, concrete
building. Its capacity is, at present, 600 students. All irons
12 The Normal Quarterly
are heated by electricity. Steam drying is employed. The rates
to students is one-third of list price; and the list price is below
that of commercial laundries.
Other Buildings. — The President's Cottage stands west of
the man entrance to the grounds. The power-house is so situ-
ated that it will stand next to and behind the science hall when
that building is erected. The dairy barn has stall space for fifty
cows, ten head of horses and mules, grain bins and hay loft of
ample capacity. Four cottages, a calf barn, a lumber shed, and
covered stall for wagonettes and teams complete the present
equipment of buildings.
New Dairy Barn. — A contract has recently been let for
the erection of a concrete dairy barn at the expense and for the
use of the Normal Club. This barn will be fire-proof in every
respect, will have fifty stalls, and will be so constructed as to
make possible the application of the most approved sanitary
measures. The barn floor will be of concrete, with stalls, gutters,
troughs, etc., so arranged as to permit the use of water hose for
cleansing purposes. The stalls will be the James Improved
Sanitary, and the barn will be equipped with an overhead litter
carrier. The silo will be of 150 tons capacity. The milk room
will be erected at a point halfway between the barn and the
dining hall. The whole barn and dairy are in charge of an
Swimming Pool. — For the use of the young ladies of the
boarding club, a concrete swimming pool is provided. Its dimen-
sions are 80x20 feet; its depth varies from 4 feet 10 inches at
the ends to 6 feet in the center. During spring, summer, and
fall, the pool is emptied and filled several times per week. The
water used is from the salt well near the power house. This
water is, in saline content and general appearance, almost iden-
tical with sea water. Courses in swimming are offered to stu-
dents during the spring, summer and fall quarters. The pool is
provided with ten dressing rooms, each of which has a shower
bath equipment for the use of students before entering and
after leaving the pool.
Light and Heat. — All dormitories, including the dining hall,
are heated by steam, the Warren-Webster system being used.
The Normal Quarterly 13
The main academic building is heated by air warmed as it en-
ters the building fresh from outside.
The Power House supplies electricity for lighting purposes,
for the laundry, and for the operation of fans in the class-rooms
during the summer quarter. Electric irons are furnished free
for the use of students in several dormitories.
The Infirmary occupies a large room on the second floor of
the old Model School building. It is in charge of a graduate
nurse, who is in constant attendance upon those who may be
sick or indisposed.
Land. — Besides the original tract purchased by the town and
parish of Natchitoches for the use of the Normal School, addi-
tional land has recently been purchased. The school now owns
267 acres of land. The campus occupies about twenty -five acres ;
the athletic grounds, eight acres ; the garden, ten acres ; the fields,
thirty acres; the pecan grove, twenty-five acres; the remainder
being in open and wood pasture.
THE MODEL SCHOOL.
As part of the State Normal School, a model or practice
school is maintained in which the enrolment ranges from three
hundred to three hundred and twenty-five. The school has eleven
grades, of which the seven lower grades constitute the elemen-
tary and grammar schools and the four higher grades the high
school division of the practice department. In each grade of the
school the work is planned to correspond with the courses of the
public schools, but the work is elaborated and broadened through
diligent study and consecrated effort on the part of the teachers
The head of the training department of the Normal School is
principal of the practice school. Nine expert teachers are in
charge of the actual work of teaching and of the student teach-
ers in their practice teaching in the grades. No effort is spared,
either by critic or practice teachers, to make the instruction in
the model school the best possible. The class-room equipment in
14 The Normal Quarterly
this school is ample to meet all the' needs of the best instruction ;
and the conditions surrounding the pupils are made as favorable
Heretofore the practice school has occupied the south end of
the first floor of the main academic building. Hereafter it will be
domiciled in a fifty-thousand-dollar model school house, forming
the north end of the academic court. On February 8, 1912, the
first ward of the Parish of Natchitoches, comprising the town of
Natchitoches, voted a five-mill tax for twelve years to defray
the cost of the new model school building. The tax of $50,000
has been bonded and floated, and the erection of the building is
This new building, measuring 90x156 feet, will contain ten
large class rooms, thirty-six small practice rooms, an auditorium
with a seating capacity of four hundred, a large gymnasium,
kindergarten room, a library, a domestic science department,
with cooking, sewing and dining rooms, a manual training shop,
sanitary closets, shower baths, locker and dressing rooms, and
teachers' rooms. This building when completed will be a model
of its kind, and, as the practice department of a normal school,
will be surpassed by none in the entire South.
A library of over five thousand books, with a subscription
list of one hundred periodicals, including daily and monthly
newspapers, professional, literary, technical and religious jour-
nals and magazines is available for the use of the students. This
is the general workshop of the school. Students are sent here
with references, according to their advancement and individual
needs, to the authorities and sources of information. They are
assisted in looking up these references by the librarian, who is
in constant attendance.
The library is open from 8 :15 A. M. to 4 :30 P. M. and from
5 :30 to 7 :30 P. M. every school day, and from 9 A. M. to 4 P.
M. on Saturdays.
DOMESTIC SCIENCE ROOM.
The domestic, science department in the Normal School oc-
cupies a large room in the main building. One end of the room
The Normal Quarterly 15
is used by classes in sewing ; the other is equipped for the work
in cooking and food study. The equipment of both divisions
of the department is ample to ensure efficient practice and in-
MANUAL TRAINING AND INDUSTRIAL DEPARTMENT.
Three rooms are given to this department, one of which is
used wholly for the industrial work offered under 2C. In this
room are provided tables and chairs for students, ample mater-
ial, lockers, lavatories, etc. The manual training shop, also oc-
cupying a capacious room, is equipped with work benches and
tools for students. The supplies for this work are kept in a third
room, in which are also stored the finished products of the man-
ual training classes.
The Biological Laboratory occupies a room in the main
building, measuring 26x50 feet. It is well lighted and ventil-
ated, and is equipped with tables and apparatus for laboratory
work. The school owns thirty microscopes in use in this depart-
ment. Glass cases contain an abundant museum of plant and
animal specimens. A large portion of the archaeological speci-
mens owned by Prof. Geo. Williamson is on exhibit in this lab-
oratory. The room is fitted with electric stereopticon and screen,
w r hich are in daily use; a large number of slides are available
for class use.
The Chemical Laboratory occupies a room of equal size
with the biological laboratory. It is fitted for class-room and
laboratory work. The tables have a capacity of forty-eight stu-
dents ; and there is on hand a full line of apparatus and chemi-
cals. This laboratory is also equipped with stereopticon and
The Physics Laboratory is domiciled in a large room on
the first floor of Boyd Hall. The room contains twelve large
tables for experimental purposes, and all necessary apparatus is
provided for classes of thirty in the several courses offered. For
recitation purposes, the classes in physics use a room separate
from the laboratory.
16 The Normal Quarterly
So fas as possible, all physical training is done out of doors ;
but on inclement days, students are required to report to the
gymnasium for exercise. The room, occupying the main por-
tion of the second story of Boyd Hall, measures 60x100 feet in
area. It is equipped with all necessary apparatus for vigorous
The music department is domiciled on the third floor of the
academic building, occupying four large rooms and a smaller
room for voice work. Four teachers of pianoforte and violin are
employed. The band uses one of the larger rooms for its re-
The school owns a Steinway Grand, six Steinway Uprights,
and ten pianos of other makes. All students studying pianoforte
are required to practice one hour daily.
BOOKS AND STATIONERY.
The normal book store in the main building carries a full
stock of all text books used in the Normal School. General sta-
tionery -and supplies for classes in art, drawing, industrial work,
etc., are also on hand. The prices of the book store are the list
prices of publishers. The store-room is open all day, and is of
great convenience to normal students. The model school books
are not in stock in the book store, but must be purchased from
the depository in the town of Natchitoches.
REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION.
The State Normal School is a professional school, and as such
does not solicit anyone who does not expect to teach.
Students are admitted to any term for which they are pre-
pared. To enter the first term, applicants must offer a certifi-
cate of promotion from the eighth to the ninth grade of an ap-
proved Louisiana high school, or pass examination in arithmetic,
algebra through factoring, American history, geography, gram-
The Normal Quarterly 17
mar, and botany. Students of better attainments may enter
a higher term, and complete the course in correspondingly
Graduates of approved high schools and holders of first grade
teachers' certificates who have taught since certificates were is-
sued, are admitted to the 2C class without examination, while
those who have taught with second-grade certificates are ad-
mitted without examination to the IB class.
Teachers should be strong men and women, physically, men-
tally, and morally; and weakness in any of these respects dis-
qualifies the applicant.
1. Age. Girls may be admitted after completing their fif-
teenth year, young men after their sixteenth. Girls in their
fifteenth year and boys in their sixteenth year cannot be ad-
2. Health. Every applicant must present a certificate of good
health and freedom from deformity. Blanks for this purpose
are found in the back of the catalogue.
Persons in a low state of health, of frail physique, defective
eyesight, impaired hearing, consumptive tendency, or those hav-
ing any deformity, are not admitted.
Persons who have been exposed to contagious diseases, ty-
phoid, yellow or scarlet fever, diptheria, measles or small-pox,
cannot be admitted without a certificate from the Parish Health
3. Character. Applicants must present certificate of good
character, signed by the Parish Superintendent. If the applicant
is not personally known to the Superintendent, the certificate
may be signed by the Sheriff, Parish Clerk, Judge, or Police
4. Pledge. Students receiving free tuition sign the following
I, , Parish of
declare my intention to attend the State Normal School until
graduated, and to teach in the public schools of Louisiana for at
least one year after graduation.
The pledge is not construed to require continuous attendance.
Many of the best students attend for only one or two terms at a
18 The Normal Quarterly
time, then teach for a while before completing the remainder of
Honorable release from the obligation may be obtained from
the President on account of inability to do the required work,
failure of health or eyesight, pecuniary necessity, or family be-
reavement, or by payment of tuition fees for terms of attend-
Students who do not expect to teach in Louisiana pay a tui-
tion fee of $15 a term.
Students from other states have the same privileges as Louis-
iana students, provided they promise to teach in Louisiana or pay
the tuition fees.
The requirements for graduation are two: satisfactory com-
pletion of the course of study and development of an acceptable
degree of skill in teaching and control. They are equally indis-
pensable; no amount of scholarship can take the place of teach-
ing power, and no facility in teaching can atone for poor
The diploma of the Normal School is authority for a license
to teach in any public school of Louisiana for four years. It may
be renewed indefinitely by the Board of Administrators. ' - upon
satisfactory evidence of success, progress, and good character."
Furthermore, the diploma of the State Normal School shall en-
title its holder to such degree of preference in selecting teachers
for the public schools of the State as may be deemed wise and
expedient by the State Board of Education.
Four classes are graduated each year, but there is only one
commencement exercise, in May, at which time diplomas for all
graduates of the year are given.
DEMAND FOR GRADUATES.
The schools of Louisiana require five thousand white teachers.
The average term of service is about four years, and a thousand
Hew teachers are needed each year.
Many of the Parish Boards now engage only trained teachers,
and in every parish of the State some schools require normal
graduates. As popular interest in the. public school increases,
The Normal Quarterly 19
there is an increasing demand for trained men and women ; and
for several years the Normal School has had many more calls for
graduates than it could supply.
Capable, well trained teachers are eagerly sought by school
boards, not only in Louisiana, but throughout the South. And
every man and woman prepared to give superior service in the
schoolroom may be sure of prompt employment in responsible
positions at good salaries.
For several years the graduating classes of the Normal
Schools have been practically all engaged in advance of gradu-
ation. The demand for trained teachers may be expected to in-
crease ; and the public school service offers an inviting field to the
strongest and worthiest young men and women of the State.
Graduates of the Normal School are filling well many im-
portant school positions as Parish Superintendents, High School
Principals, and teachers in the best schools of the State, while
many others are rendering equally valuable service in the rural
The courses of study equip teachers for success in their chosen
lines of work.
TUITION AND FEES.
Tuition at the Normal School is free in all departments ex-
cept instrumental music. For instruction in pianoforte, violin
and voice, the tuition fee is $12.00 per term of three months,
payable in advance. No charges, however are made for in-
struction in public school singing or to members of the band.
The following fees are charged by the term and are payable
in advance: $2.00 for registration, and $1.00 for athletics.
Students pursuing laboratory courses in the sciences are charged
a fee of $1.00 per term for materials consumed. No deduction is
made in fees when the attendance covers only a fractional part
of a term.
Students pursuing special courses or courses not leading to
graduation are charged a fee of $15.00 per term. The same fee
20 The Normal Quarterly
is charged to all students who do not expect to teach in Louis-
The charge for board in the club is $12.00 per month of four
weeks, payable in advance. For less than a week, board is fifty
cents a day. This amount covers board, lodging, lights, heat and
service. The charge for laundry is $2.00 per month, also payable
in advance. For this amount, club members are entitled to a
service aggregating $6.00 at laundry list rates. Laundry in
excess of this amount is charged at list rates.
Mothers and sisters of club members, when in the club, are
charged $1.00 a day. No other visitors are accommodated.
The infirmary fee, payable at the opening of each term by
every club member, is $1.00. This covers cost of attendance by
graduate nurse, service when sick, and medicine. In case of pro-
tracted or serious illness, requiring the services of a physician,
extra nursing, or pharmacy prescriptions, such expenses are
charged to the patient.
BOARD FOR MEN.
The Normal School is now equipping a men's dormitory,
which will accommodate sixty students. In the assignment of
space in this dormitory, preference will be given to those stu-
dents already enrolled in school. The charges for board and
laundry here will be at club rates. Male students not in the
club board in the town at rates of from $3.50 to $4.00 per
week. Laundry costs about $1.50 per month.
AVERAGE COST PER TERM.
The following is an estimate of the average cost of attendance
per term to a regular student boarding in the club :
Board at $12.00 per 4 weeks $36.00
Laundry, $2.00 per 4 weeks 6.00
Incidental, athletic and infirmary fees 4.00
Books and stationery 9.00
The Normal Quarterly 21
THE BOARDING DEPARTMENT.
Under the name of the Normal Boarding Club, the school has
in a semi-official manner conducted for many years a dormitory
and boarding department. This has heretofore been restricted
to young women, by whom seven dormitories have been used
regularly. Among these are comprised the new fire-proof con-
crete dormitory erected in 1910, and the second story of the new
dining hall, which is also fire-proof.
One of the frame buildings formerly used by women has re^
cently been moved to a portion of the grounds set aside for the
young men sudents, and is now in use as a men's dormitory.
There is now dormitory accommodation on the normal
grounds for six hundred and fifty women and sixty men. All
lady students from a distance board at the school during the fall,
winter and spring quarters.
All bedrooms are comfortable and properly furnished with
single beds, mattresses, chairs, tables, dressers, wardrobes, wash-
stands or lavatories, steam heat and electric light.
Students provide their own pillows, sheets, blankets, bed-
spreads, towels, and napkins. Feather beds and cotton com-
forts and quilts are not allowed in the dormitories. All club
girls must be provided with umbrellas and rubber shoes.
Members of the club are required to make up their beds and
keep their rooms in order and neat appearance. Service in the
rooms is furnished by the club, being comprised in the charges
for board. Inspection of the rooms is made at intervals by the
President accompanied by the lady in charge of each dormitory.
Assignments to rooms are made by the matron of the club,
and choice is given to students who are already members of the
club. New students are not permitted t\o select rooms.
All dormitories are kept in strictly neat and sanitary condi-
tion. Sanitary closets are provided in every building ; and every
club member has free access, under club rules, to bath rooms
found in each dormitory. All bath tubs are the best enameled,
and are provided with hot and cold water.
The club is governed by the President of the school, and re-
ceives his personal attention throughout the year.
The beautiful Normal Hill is the home and recreation
grounds of the members of the club after school closes in the af-
22 The Normal Quarterly
1. Applicants must file certificates of good health and good
character, and agree to observe the club rules.
2. Club members are required to conduct themselves with
propriety, and to show due regard for the rights of others.
3. Members cannot leave the ground without reporting to the
matron, both on leaving and returning.
4. No member will be permitted to spend the night away
from the club, and requests to this effect from parents will al-
ways be refused.
5. Young women living in the club are not permitted to re-
ceive calls from gentlemen.
6. Club members are not allowed to receive packages of food.
7. Medicines must not be kept in bedrooms. No narcotic, in-
toxicants, or poisonous substance is allowed under any circum-
stances. Remedies for the simple ailments incident to school life
are kept and dispensed by the nurse. When a student is sick
enough to need the attention of a physician, she is taken to the
infirmary and placed in charge of a graduate nurse.
8. On Sunday, club members must attend day services at the
9. For minor violation of the club rules, a member may be
put under arrest, which means forfeiture of privileges for the
time. For any grave violation of rules or of propriety, for con-
tinuous neglect of duty, or unbecoming conduct, the member will
Nearly all the club members are preparing themselves for their
life work, most of them at their own expense. And with students
of this class the largest possible liberty may be safely allowed.
Every feature of the club management rests on the assumption
that the students are capable of self-control, and that they desire
to advance the interest and welfare of the club.
In the fall, winter, and spring terms, breakfast is served at 8
ick; luncheon at 12:10; dinner at 5. In the summer term,
the hours an; '-lumped to suit conditions.
No rising hour is prescribed, and students are advised to
The Normal Quarterly 23
sleep as late as possible in the morning. Negligee dress is not
allowed in dining room.
It is harmful for students to have too much spending money,
and simplicity in dress is desirable.
Parents are advised to have their daughters' clothing made at
home. Simplicity in dress is insisted on, and modesty of attire
is expected of all young ladies in the club.
THE ALUMNI LOAN FUND.
The Alumni Association maintains a loan fund from which
temporary loans are made to students in the last year of the
Normal School, to be paid out of the first year's earning after
graduation. The graduating class of 1909 began a movement to
raise a Five Thousand Dollar Alumni Loan Fund by subscribing
five dollars each. Succeeding classes have followed this example
and in 1910 the Alumni Association gave the plan official en-
dorsement. Active efforts have since then been made by the
Association, particularly within the past few months, to have
this entire amount subscribed. Their efforts have been meeting
with success and there is now on hand and pledged about two
thousand of the five thousand dollars. It is expected that the en-
tire amount will be on hand within this year. Loans are now
being made from the latter fund as well as the former. The
number of students now aided by loans from the Alumni Asso-
ciation is thirty-two, this number comprising students now in
the school as well as teachers indebted to the fund. The total
number of young men and women whose education has in part
been made possible through the Alumni Association is seventy;
and the amount now outstanding in loans is $2,651.20.
ALBY L. SMITH SCHOLARSHIP.
This scholarship, in memory of the first training teacher of
the State Normal School, was established by the Alumni Asso-
ciation in 1897. It is a gift scholarship and the award is made
by a committee of the Association. Students prepared for the
24 The Normal Quarterly
2C class or a higher class are eligible to this appointment. Eight
young women have, up to this time, been awarded the Alby L.
THE FEDERATION LOAN SCHOLARSHIP.
The Louisiana Federation of Women's Clubs maintains a
scholarship in the State Normal School. The scholarship fund
of the Federation is now in excess of $1,000. From this fund
loans are made from time to time, as may be necessary, to the
scholarship student. No charges are made for interest. The
return of the loan begins with the second month of the bene-
ficiary's employment as teacher, and the amount to be returned
monthly is expected to be not less than ten dollars.
The General Assembly of 1904 authorized by enactment an
appropriation by each of the police juries of the State for the
maintenance of a beneficiary student at the State Normal School.
The selection of the scholarship student from each parish
lies wholly with the police jury, and is ordinarilly made either
by vote of that body or by competitive examination. The amount
usually appropriated is $55.00 per term, or $165.00 for the year.
This covers necessary expenses for board, laundry, lights, fuel,
service, fees, books and stationery.
The police jury in each of the following parishes has, during
the session 1911-1912, maintained a scholarship student in the
Louisiana State Normal School :
De Soto Pointe Coupee
Franklin Red River
[beria St. Charles
Iberville St. Landry
Jackson St. M<iry
The Normal Quarterly 25
St. Tammany "West Baton Rouge
Tensas West Carroll
These students are among the best in the school, and as shown
by the splendid services rendered the parishes by those scholar-
ship students who have graduated and become teachers, the par-
ish funds cannot be better invested than in the training of good
teachers for the youth of the State.
Several other scholarships, besides those named above, are
maintained at the State Normal School by benevolent citizens
and clubs. Among these is the Hypatia Memorial Scholarship,
of the Hypatia Club of Shreveport. This is a loan scholarship,
no interest being charged on loans.
There are four literary societies. The Seekers After Knowl-
edge, the Eclectic Literary Society, the Modern Culture Club, and
the Mortar Board Society. In the first three, membership is lim-
ited to the classes above 2B. The Mortar Board Society is
composed of students from the lower terms, and is under the
supervision of a faculty committee. Regular meetings are held
every Saturday night, to which only members are admitted, and
open meetings are given once a term by each society. At com-
mencement there is an inter-society contest in oratory, declama-
tion, extemporaneous speaking, music, and parliamentary prac-
A term of successful work in any of the three advanced
literary societies constitutes a society credit. Three such credits
are required for graduation. Students having five or more so-
ciety credits may substitute two of them for a condition in Eng-
lish in any course. A society credit may be made by doing
two terms of successful work in the Mortar Board Society, one
of which terms must be 2B.
26 The Normal Quarterly
The Normal School is a public, unsectarian school. It aims
to throw around the students refined moral influences and to
develop high ethical and religious standards of living.
Students are required to attend the services of the churches
in Natchitoches— Baptist, Catholic, Episcopal, and Methodist,
and the B 'nai Israel Synagogue. All of these have earnest mem-
bers in the faculty, and students of every faith have abundant
opportunity to observe all the requirements of their church
The Young Men's Christian Association, the Young Women's
Christian Association, and the Apostleship of Prayer have ef-
ficient organizations for religious and charitable work.
The young men and the young women of the student body
maintain separate athletic associations, the purposes of which
are the representation in an organic way of the students in all
athletic work of the institution. Regular officers are elected and
committees are appointed who care for the athletic equipment of
the several sports, assist in laying off and maintaining courts,
fields and tracks, and make recommendations to the general ath-
letic committee. On this committee each association is represent-
ed by its president and secretary. Entertainments are given
during the year by each association.
Under the direction of Mr. H. W. Stopher, teacher of public
school music, a band was organized among the normal boys on
April 12, 1911. Instruments which belong to the town of Natchi-
toches were lent the school for the beginning by the City
Council. These instruments are in good condition and of
the very best make. The present membership is thirty-six, with
the following instruments : Nine cornets, nine wood instruments,
five altos, two baritones, four trombones, five basses and two
drums. Twenty of the instruments belong to the boys who play
1 hem, and four belong to the band. The band also owns four more,
which arc not in present use. The value of the instruments now
in the hand is approximately $1,000. The organization owns
The Normal Quarterly 27
a hundred dollars' worth of music, and handsome uniforms to
the value of four hundred dollars, paid for in part by concerts
given by the band. Three rehearsals are held weekly.
It is the intention of the management to secure a first-class
instrument for each player as soon as possible. Since its organ-
ization, the band has been self-supporting and self-governing.
Except in actual rehearsal and during public appearances, the
leader is a member only. The only permanent committee has
charge of the band equipment. This committee calls in for in-
spection all uniforms and other property at the end of each
During the year the band has furnished music at the Natchi-
toches Parish Fair and several public meetings, as well as at
school entertainments and athletic events. The boys play fifty
marches, waltzes, and selections. Its most ambitious attempt
so far is the quartet from "Rigoletto," by Verdi, played at the
anniversary concert given April 19, 1912.
BOYS' AND GIRLS' GLEE CLUBS.
A boys' and a girls' glee club, separate organizations, are
maintained under the direction of the instructor in charge of
public school music. Both organizations are voluntary, but the
membership is restricted to students who show a certain pro-
ficiency in singing and who evince an interest in the work of the
glee clubs. Two rehearsals of each club are held weekly, and
the work is progressive. During the year, recitals are given
by the clubs. On February 23, 1912, the girls' glee club present-
ed "King Rene's Daughter" to an audience of 700 persons. No
fees are charged for glee club instruction. Membership in these
clubs is of great value to teachers who may be called upon to
direct chorus work.
In place of the usual recital during the spring term, it has
been customary to give each glee club a prominent place on the
program for commencement week. It has been planned next year
to combine the glee clubs for one term and give an opera, with
all its accessories of stage scenery, costumes, action, and orches-
28 The Normal Quarterly
MANDOLIN AND GUITAR CLUB.
The Mandolin and Guitar Club was organized in the fall of
1911 and has been under the leadership of Mr. R. W. Winstead.
No fee is attached to membership in the club. Students who
can play the mandolin or guitar are invited to take advantage
of this opportunity to keep in practice and to learn a better
class of music than is usually played on such instruments.
THE NORMAL ORCHESTRA.
This is a voluntary organization of young men and women
who study under the musical instructors. The orchestra has a
membership of a dozen or more, and furnishes music during the
week at assemblies of the student body and at some of the en-
tertainments given during each term. No charges attach to mem-
bership in the orchestra.
It is the privilege of each of the four literary societies to
have one quartet or double-quartet, the personnel of which may
be selected by the chorister of each society, and given one period
a week for practice. These rehearsals are under the super-
vision of the teacher of public school music. For the past two
years these ensemble numbers have appeared on the programs
of the annual commencement contests.
Through its lyceum course, the Normal School provides an
opportunity for the students to enjoy each year a series of lec-
tures, readings, and musical numbers. The aim of the lyceum
committee is to bring to the students of the school the very
best that is offered in literature, music and didactics.
During the terms of 1911-12, an unusual privilege was of-
fered the students in a series of lectures on the Single Tax ques-
tion, delivered by Mr. Charles Frederick Adams. His services
were secured through co-operation with citizens of Natchitoches.
The regular course was devoted to music. David Bispham, Amer-
ic;i's greatest baritone, Joseph Lhevinne, the world's famous
pianist, and The Plonzaley, the greatest stringed quartet, made
up the course. Students who have paid the regular athletic fee
are admitted free to all lyceum entertainments.
The Normal Quarterly 29
Jointly with the regular course of the State Normal School,
there is held annually a summer school under the auspices of
the State Board of Institute Managers. This school is in opera-
tion during the entire summer quarter of ten weeks, six days
per week. All recitations are held during the forenoon, the
daily assembly being held at 12 :40. Domestic science, labora-
tory, and shop work are offered at convenient hours in the
In the summer school, courses are offered in all subjects on
which applicants for first and second grade certificates are ex-
amined; and summer school students have the widest latitude
in electing courses. The subjects thus offered comprise arithme-
tic, algebra, geometry, grammar, literature, geography, physiol-
ogy, civil government of Louisiana and the United States, spell-
ing, physics, agriculture, history, drawing, theory and art of
teaching, Louisiana school problems, primary education, kinder-
garten work, elementary methods, and rural school management.
In the more popular subjects, the work is offered in two, three,
or four sections, to the end that students may almost invariably
elect what branches they desire.
In the regular normal course, considerable advanced work
is available for alumni of the Normal School who expect to at-
tend during the summer quarter of 1912. This comprises work
in chemistry, physics, botany, zoology, mathematics, Latin,
French and history. Besides these subjects, the course of study
has recently been broadened by the addition of several subjects
suitable for further study by normal graduates. Among these
are rural school organization, farm animals, dairying and poul-
try raising, economics and hygiene and sanitation.
The summer school is conducted under the same rules of the
Normal School as is regular term work. The same fees are
charged ; tuition is free. For general directions, see other parts
of this catalogue.
The text-books used in the summer school are those adopted
for the public schools of Louisiana. Applicants for admission to
the summer school should bring with them such public school
books as they may possess.
30 The Normal Quarterly
All summer school students should take receipt from railroad
agents when buying tickets to Natchitoches. This insures a
return rate of one-third fare.
ATHLETICS AT THE NORMAL SCHOOL.
Athletic work at the State Normal School is carried on with
a view of keeping it well balanced all along the terms, with the
following points in mind:
I. Physical welfare of the student.
II. The training of the future teachers of the State so that
they may intelligently exercise general supervision over public
III. Special instruction in those branches of athletics which
have been introduced generally throughout the State.
IV. The development of a correct idea of true sportsmanship
and school spirit.
Four credits are required in athletics. Every student
must take some form of exercise during each term except the
eleventh. Two hours of work are required each week, giving the
student two-fifths of a credit per term. In order that a student
may receive a credit attendance must be regular, a reasonable
proficiency in the work must be attained, and a good knowledge
of the rules of the various games acquired. The games in which
credits are required are as follows : For the girls, tennis, basket
ball, swimming, and an elective in some other sport ; for the boys,
football, track, basket ball, base ball or tennis.
The following are used during the proper season: Cross
country, indoor base ball, hand ball, hockey and calisthenics.
Besides the athletic director, members of the faculty assist
regularly in the work.
Fifteen tennis courts located in a group, afford accommoda-
tion for fifty or more girls at one time. There are enough basket
ball courts for all students who elect this sport. The new ath-
letic field, lately finished, for the boys, is one of the best in the
South. At one side of the field is a grand stand, which accom-
modates twelve hundred people. A tall board fence surrounds
the field A commodious building with shower baths and lock-
ers is provided for the students. A well cindered and graded
track surrounds the base ball and foot ball fields.
The Normal Quarterly 31
Swimming classes for the girls are open during the summer
and parts of the spring and fall quarters, when it is possible
to use the natatorium. The instructor in swimming is highly
proficient, the exercise is excellent, and the course very popu-
In Boyd Hall is a gymnasium equipped for basket ball, in-
door baseball and calisthenics. Hockey can be played either
in the gymnasium or on the tennis courts when not in use.
The work in athletics is begun in the Model School in the
form of games, marches, drills and such work among the boys
as is suited to their stage of development.
The one great) purpose is to make an attempt to remedy any
physical defect in the student that can be overcome by carefully
supervised physical exercise.
32 The Normal Quarterly
COURSES OF STUDY,
In addition to certain changes made in the course of study
of the Normal School at the opening of the 1911 summer quarter,
other changes will be put into effect at the opening of the 1912
summer school on June 3d. These changes have to do with the
advancement of the courses, a broadening of the scope of work,
a rearrangement in the order of subjects and the inauguration
of new courses.
In order to effect a closer coordination between the high
schools of Louisiana and the Normal School, all subjects of
secondary school grade taught at the Normal School have been
placed in the five lower terms, and all subjects of college grade
are in the six higher terms. This change makes it possible to
offer more advanced courses in the sciences, mathematics, history
and kindred subjects; and through a system of elective subjects
in the higher terms, opportunity is offered for specializing along
certain lines. The changes referred to eliminate the work of the
first term as offered during the past year, and add another term
at the end of the course.
Under the new order, graduates of approved high schools
will be admitted to the 2C class, which corresponds to the seventh
term of the past year. Besides, such students are given advanced
credit in 2C chemistry.
The general scope of Normal Work has been broadened and
enriched in two ways : 1. By the addition of courses in higher
subjects referred to above. Among these subjects are botany,
zoology, physics, chemistry, history, economics, sociology, French,
and Latin. 2. The addition of a course in rural education. The
purpose of this course is to prepare teachers for more efficient
service in the rural schools of the State; and it seeks not only
to give the student a knowledge of those subjects which are of
importance to rural life and the country school, but also to de-
velop a sense of social service and to instill a proper attitude
toward rural life betterment.
The Normal Quarterly
OUTLINE OF COURSES.
Industrial Geog- 1
raphy r • • • 6
French or Latin}
Drawing | 2q
French or > 5
Drawing 1 10
French or > 5
French or J- 5
American History.... 5
Farm Animals 1
French or }■ 5
French or \ 5
Manual Training ]
Singing and Draw- )■ 5
Advanced Algebra J
Nature Study \ . . . .
French or Latin. . .
Drawing and Sing-
5 Applied Psychology
5 Physics >
French or Latin
5 Drawing and Sing-
5 Pedagogy > . . . 5
5 Special Methods J
5 Teaching 5
Zoology and Chem-
French or Latin
Drawing and Sing-
Farm, Shop or
History of Education. 5
Hygiene and Sanita-
Zoology J- 5
Domestic Science J
tion )■ £
English .". 5
34 The Normal Quarterly
REQUIRED SUBJECTS IN ALL COURSES.
All subjects printed in Roman type in the outline of courses
are required, and must be taken by all students. Subjects in
italics are elective under the conditions explained below.
CREDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR GRADUATION.
All candidates for graduation must offer fifty-six credits in
regular studies, four credits in athletics, and three literary so-
ciety credits. Laboratory work and other subjects not requiring
preparation or home study count two for one; and practice
teaching with accompaning daily critiques counts one for two.
Two literary society credits may be substituted for a condition in
English. Courses in voice, pianoforte, violin, and other instru-
ments count two for one and may be offered in lieu of singing
where this subject is elective.
COURSES IN MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE.
Students preparing to teach mathematics must take a
mathematical subject in 2C, 3 A, 3C, and 4 A. Those pre-
paring for science work are required to take an elective
science in 3A, 3B, 3C, and 4A under the condition of pre-
requisites as explained in the syllabi of courses. Students
electing the social science course must take civics 3A and ad-
vanced history in 3B and 3C, economics in 3B and sociology
Students electing either the French or Latin course are re-
quired to take the following subjects in each language: 1A, IB,
1C, 2 A, 2B, 2C, and 3 A. Such students may also pursue as elec-
tives French or Latin in 3B and 3C.
COURSE IN RURAL EDUCATION.
Besides the required subjects, appearing in Roman type under
the outline of courses, students pursuing the course in rural edu-
cation must take 1A industrial geography; IB, 1C and 2A agri-
culture ; 2B farm animals ; 2C dairying ; 3A farm arithmetic ; 3B
economics, 3C rural economics; 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 4A manual
training or domestic science, and 4B rural school organization.
The Normal Quarterly 35
COURSE IN SINGING AND DRAWING.
Students pursuing this course are required to take all singing
and drawing offered and also 3C special method in singing and
drawing. Beginning with these subjects in class 2C, two hours
count for one.
I A. Color Work. Freehand representation; objects from
nature, as fruit, vegetables, and flowers, in color. History of
Architecture and Sculpture. Text — The Applied Arts Drawing
Books, 5th and 6th years, are used.
IB. Perspective. Parallel and angular perspective. Object
study. Art history — Early Christian and Early Renaissance.
The 7th and 8th years of The Applied Arts Drawing Books are
2B. Study op Human Figure. Illustration. Art History
of the High Renaissance. Text — Art Education for High Schools.
2C. Advanced Landscape Composition. Illustration. De-
signs for use in domestic science, manual training, and for in-
terior decoration. History of Art — High Renaissance continued,
and the Decadence. Text — Art Education for High Schools.
3A. Applied Design. Block printing, stenciling, embroid-
ering, lantern making, etc. Use of Applied Arts Drawing Books.
History of British and American Art.
3B. Review and application of art principles. Black-board
drawing. Illustration. Picture study.
3C. Methods. Planning courses in drawing for use in
public schools. Practice teaching.
The work in this department has for its aim a two-fold pur-
pose: to provide opportunity for those students pursuing the
regular courses to receive some training along this line, and to
make it possible for students to specialize in this work with a
view of teaching it in the rural and the city graded schools.
2C. Model Sewing (Handwork) and its application to
sewing in elementary schools, including the following processes:
36 The Normal Quarterly
Basting, overcasting, overbanding, running stitch, hemming,
cross stitch, catch stitch, French hpmming, darning, patching,
types of plackets, button holes and seams. Some consideration
is also given to the selection of materials with regard to quality
Food Study. The aim of this subject is to provide some
scientific basis for the course in cookery which will follow in
3A. It will attempt to familiarize the student with the pro-
cesses of metabolism in the body, the chemical composition of
foods and nutritive and economic values.
3A. Cookery. Special attention will be given to labora-
tory technique. The cooking of typical carbohydrates, such as
potatoes, cereals, and macaroni, and of the simpler protein foods,
like milk and eggs, will be included. Careful study will be
given to the selection of meats and how to prepare the inexpen-
sive cuts in attractive ways.
Plain Sewing.. (Garment Making). This will provide op-
portunity for the study of patterns and designs, as well as for
the development of individuality in the selection of materials.
The use and care of sewing machines will also be included.
Food Study. A continuation of the course in the preced-
3B. Cookery. Food preservation, including canning and
preserving; a study of leavening agents in the practical expe-
rience of handling various types of batters and doughs; the
preparation of simple salads and desserts, and the selection and
preparation of fish, game and poultry.
Household Administration. The purpose of this course is
to increase the efficiency of the art of home-making and it will in-
clude such phases of the subject as household hygiene and sanita-
tion, interior decoration, a consideration of such problems as
domestic service, household accounts, etc. Texts — Tyrell's
Household Management, Elliot's Household Hygiene.
3C. Cookery. In this term attention will be given to cor-
rect combination of foods, with a view to the study of menus and
the planning and serving of a simple luncheon at a limited cost.
Dressmaking. The designing and making of a simple shirt
Home Nursing. To give a practical knowledge of the cause,
The Normal Quarterly 37
nature, and proper treatment in the home of common ailments;
also to familiarize the student with the nature and treatment of
common emergencies that may be met with in the home, the
school, or elsewhere. This work will be emphasized by practical
demonstrations where possible.
4A. Cookery. A continued study of correct combinations
followed by the planning and serving of an informal dinner.
Invalid cookery. Frozen desserts.
Dressmaking. Planning and making a simple wash dress,
which may be used as a commencement dress.
MANUAL TRAINING AND SHOP WORK.
2C. Elementary Industrial Work. This course is based
largely upon material easily obtained in all parts of the State. It
is planned to give instruction in those forms of handwork that
are most suitable for use in the elementary school and to study
them from an educational point of view. The course includes
burlap work, basketry, pine needle, raffia and reed, book binding,
weaving, paper folding and cutting, card board construction and
3A. Farm Shopwork. The aim of the following course is
to give instruction in the use and care of the common tools which
should be found on every up-to-date farm and also to take up the
processes of construction so that every student will be able t<r
make all the simple necessities and conveniences needed on the
farm or in the farm home. The common woodworking tools, as the
saw, chisel, plane, square, brace and bits, and drawing knife,
will be studied as to their uses and care. Exercise will be taken
up involving the correct manipulation of these different tools.
A simple equipment for a farm shop will be constructed by the
class collectively, consisting of a work bench, horses, miter box,
tool chest, bench hood and mallet. A series of simple joints will
be constructed consisting of the following: Butt, rabbett, lap,
miter, dowel, glue, and mortice and tenon.
3B. Farm and Home Conveniences. A number of objects
needed on every farm will be constructed including the follow-
ing: Gates, doors, feed boxes, troughs, ladders, milking stools,
shelves, grape arbors, hot beds, poultry equipment as hen
houses, brooder, nests and coops, whiffle trees, hammer and ax
38 The Normal Quarterly
handles, play ground equipment as tilt or see-saw, jumping bars,
jumping board, and swings. Also fireless cooker, and out of door
necessities as hitch racks, sheds, walks, sanitary privy, etc.
3C. Work in Iron. This term's work will consist of simple
forging in drawing and pointing, bending and shaping, cutting,
flattening, tempering and welding, pipe fitting and cutting, and
4A. Farm Machinery. This course takes up the general care
and use of the principal tools that are found on modern farms.
It aims to develop in the student practice in quickly putting to-
gether and handling common types of farm machinery. The
care and use of gasoline engines is also included.
The prescribed course of study for the piano requires ap-
proximately four years of the regular student of average ability.
Throughout the course, studies of varying degrees of difficulty
adapted to the individual needs of the student are given.
First Year. Scales, arpeggios, and broken chords. Twelve
easy studies by Kohler; Czerny's Practical Method for Begin-
ners; Gaynor Pedal Studies. Easy selections from Mrs. Crosby
Adams, Hannah Smith, Gurlitt, Charles Dennee, Matthews, and
Second Year. Scales, arpeggios, and broken chords. Twelve
easy preludes by Bach, Heller, Czerny, Duvernoy, and Lemoine.
Selections from Jensen, Schumann, Gade, McDowell, Mendels-
sohn, and Grieg.
Third Year. Pischna, Czerny, German Vol. II.,Bach's Two
and Three-part Inventions, Kullak's Preparatory Octave Stud-
ies, Sonatas by Mozart, Clementi, Czerny; Selections from
Tarjeon, Leschetizky, Frimil, Greig, Chopin.
Fourth Year. Bach's Well Tempered Clavichord, dementi's
Graclus ad Parnassum, Kullak's Octave Studies, Cramer's
Etudes, Sonatas by Beethoven. Works of Chopin, Grieg, Mc-
Dowell, Tschaikowsky, Brahms, Saint-Saens, Moszkowski, Jen-
sen, and Liszt.
First Year. Correct position ; the use of the whole bow ; study
The Normal Quarterly 39
of tone. Elementary scales and arpeggios. Violin Method by
Zanger. Etndes by Wohlfahrt, Op. 45. Easy selections from
Lange, Tolhurst, Allen, Atherton, Ehrhardt, and Kohler.
Second Year. Beginning third position. Scales and arpeg-
gios. The use of different lengths of the bow. Etudes by Wohlf-
ahrt, Op. 74, and Kayser. Duets by Mazas, Selections from
Renard, Demuth, Case, Sitt, Schill, Braga, and Dancla.
Third Year. Scales and arpeggios in third, fourth and fifth
positions. Martele bowing. Studies by Dont. Duets by Pleyel.
Selections from Barowski, Hauser, Elgar, Wohlfahrt, Saury,
Neruda, and Godard.
Fourth Year. Continuation of scales in positions. Scales in
thirds. Staccato bowing. Studies by Kreutzer and Ries. Duetts
by Viotti. Selections from Mascagni, Simonetti, Bohn, Heitsch,
Thome, Pierne, de Beriot, d'Ambrosio, Papini, Vieuxtemps, and
First Year. Deep breathing, tone placing, resonance, vocal
exercises by Concone, Lehman, Marchesi, and Panofka. Simple
songs by the standard composers.
Second Year. Exercises for developing flexibility and smooth-
ness; enunciation and phrasing; more difficult songs.
Third Year. Continuation of all work done in previous
terms. Trill is developed. Velocity studies. Arias and songs
from the standard operas. Study of oratorios, songs, classic and
All singing classes recite five times per week, with no time
outside of class required, and are credited with one-half credit
per term except in Course 2A, which recites two times per week
and for which outside preparation is required.
1A. Unison Singing, rhythm and tone work, ear-training for
both rhythm and tone with special emphasis on common triads
and the dominant seventh, songs and exercises in nine keys, and
beginning sight reading. Text — Modern Primer.
IB. Rhythm Forms and chord progressions applied to sight
reading, two-part singing, advanced ear-training in rhythm and
40 The Normal Quarterly
tone, dictation exercises, key-signatures reviewed. Text — Modern
2A. Relative to Major and Minor Keys, four-part sing-
ing, bass clef with special attention to the training of boys'
voices. Text — Common School Book, Modern Series.
2C. Chorus Practice, individual singing, study of the
development of the voice. Text — Beacon Song Book Number
Two and sheet music.
3A. Chorus Drill, practice in testing voices, the con-
struction of the chorus, glee clubs, and quartets. This course al-
ternates with IC, beginning with IC in summer quarter of 1912.
Text— The Modern Fourth Book.
3B. Chorus Directing, uses of baton, time-beating cue-
ing, score-reading, practice in directing, using the class as a
chorus. If conditions permit, some opportunity will be given
the ambitious students to direct the orchestra for practice.
3C. Music Appreciation. A study of authors and their
works, operas, cantatas, oratorios ; practice in class of giving pro-
grams from one author. No single text is used. All operas stud-
ied are in the library of the school, and may be used by the
3C. Special Method in Singing. Sight singing through the
entire set of public school books; material available for high
school work; method of teaching the subject in all grades. Text-
books — The Modern Music Series, Gaynor Books, and supple-
Two Periods per Week. There are glee clubs for both boys
and girls to give their members experience in appearing in pub-
lic. The membership of each is selected by the director from all
the students in school who have suitable voices and who sing
rapidly at sight.
TnREE Rehearsals per Week. The band is a self-supporting,
Belf -governing organization for the purpose of giving training
in playing good music and in marching and drilling, and of
fostering a more virile school spirit. Members of the band are
excused from athletic work.
The Normal Quarterly 41
IA. English Composition. An elementary course designed
to develop within the pupil the power of simple, strong, and
direct expression. Special attention to spelling and punctuation.
Text — Scott and Denney's Elementary Composition.
IB. English Literature. Special attention to oral reading.
Scott's Lady of the Lake, Addison's De Coverly Papers, and
Ruskin's Sesame and Lilies are used in this course. The aim of
all the work in literature is to develop a love for the subject and
a taste for good books.
IC. English Literature. A careful and appreciative study
of one Victorian novel, the object being to show the way to get
the best results in reading fiction; Coleridge's Shorter Poems;
Burns 's Representative Poems, and Carlyle's Essay on Burns.
In this course two important forms of prose are introduced as
typical studies, and two representative poets.
2A. English Literature. Work in poetry continued.
Studies in Tennyson, Idylls of the King, or The Princess, and
in Wordsworth's Shorter Poems.
2B. English Literature. Continuation of 2A and a study
of one, possibly two, plays of Shakespeare.
2C. English Discourse. Study of the structure of the para-
graph and the essay. Reading from the best English and Amer-
ican Essayists. Frequent themes. Text — Scott and Denny's
3B. A Course in Argumentation and Debate. Including
study of the best forms and the preparation and delivery of de-
bates. Text — Foster's Argumentation and Debate.
3C. English Grammar. An advanced course in grammar,
designed as a preparation for teaching the subject. Special at-
tention to structure of the sentence, idioms of the language, and
usages of best writers and speakers. Text — Kimball's English
4A. Study of Prose Fiction, with special attention to the
short story. Reading of the best short stories of English and
American literature. Frequent themes, the object being to de-
velop a trained and controlled imagination. Text — Bliss Perry's
Study of Prose Fiction.
42 The Normal Quarterly
4B. English Literature. Studies in Keats, Shelley, and
Browning. One comedy from Goldsmith or Sheridan. This
course is put last so that the students may leave this school with
a delightful memory of the pleasure there is in the study of
1A. Drills in pronunciation; practice in easy sentences,
training of the ear. Text — Bercy 's Livre des Enf ants.
IB. Elementary Exercises; verbs introduced. Reading —
Bercy 's Le Second Livre des Enf ants. Text — Chardenal'e
1C. Study of and drill on the verbs, rules of participles and
their different applications in oral and written expression. Read-
ing — A. Daudet's Le Petit Chose.
2A. Idiomatic French introduced. Special study of irregu-
lar verbs; adverbs; pronouns introduced; oral and written ex-
pression applying to them. Reading — Mariet's La Tache du
Petit Pierre. Text — Chardenal continued.
2B. Special study of indefinite, interrogative, and relative
pronouns, of the different adjectives and their position according
to each rule ; exceptions to preceding rules. Oral and written ex-
pression. Reading — Jeanne Schultz La Neuvaine de Collette.
Text — Chardenal.
2C. Idioms with certain verbs; study of subjunctive mode;
conjunctions used with subjunctive. Review of all preceding
rules of grammar; oral and written expression. Reading —
Moliere's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme.
3A. Pensees et Reflexions de La Bruyere et autres Auteurs
Francais, compiled and arranged by Cornelia Sisson Crowther.
Conversation based upon subject read. Text — Frazer and
3B. Reading — Hugo's Les Miserables. Composition based
upon subject read. Text — Frazer and Squair's Grammar con-
3C. Reading — Racine's Athalie, Esther. Conversation and
composition based upon book read.
The Normal Quarterly 43
1A. Beginning Latin. A thorough drill in pronunciation,
forms, with marking, vocabulary, and elementary principles of
syntax. Roman method of pronunciation used. Daily exercises
in both oral and written translation, frequent reviews, and sight
reading. Work extends through third defilensioTi of nouns.
Text — Collar and Daniell's First Year Latim,
IB. Continuation of the above course, with frequent re-
views. Close attention to relationship between Latin and Eng-
lish words. Work to extend to the ablative absolute. Same text.
1C. Conclusion of the above text, with reading of easy
Latin stories. Opportunity is here taken to impress a thorough
knowledge of declensions and conjugations.
2A. Second and third books of Caesar 's Gallic War. Critical
study of constructions, change of indirect discourse into direct,
close attention given to teaching use of connectives, participles
and clause structure. Study is made of the geographical and
historical setting of the commentaries. A strong effort is made
to have the student understand the Latin idiom and translate it
into good, idiomatic English. Prose composition once a week.
Texts — Walker's Caesar; D'Ooge's Composition.
2B. First and fourth books of Caesar's Gallic War. Practice
in sight reading. Prose composition once a week, as above, using
2C. First and second Orations against Catiline. A care-
ful study of Cicero's style, and the historical setting of the ora-
tions. Texts — D'Ooge's Cicero and Composition.
3A. Third and fourth Orations against Catiline, and
Manilian Law. Work of previous term continued. Same texts.
3B. First and second books of Vergil's Aeneid. Critical
study of poetic style, and practice in scansion. Constant con-
trast with prose forms and constructions. Mythological refer-
3C. Vergil's Aeneid continued.
1A. Algebra. Fractions to Quadratics. A thorough knowl-
edge of factoring and the fundamentals is presupposed. Text —
Wentworth's High School Algebra.
44 The Normal Quarterly
IB. Algebra. Quadratics to the end of the book. A thoroguh
knowledge of quadratics, both graphically and algebraically,
progressions, series, and logarithms is required before the com-
pletion of this course. Text — Wentworth 's High School Algebra.
IC. Plane Geometry. First two books of Wentworth-
Smith's Plane Geometry.
2A. Plane Geometry. Completion of Wentworth-Smith.
Many original problems and much construction work is required
in this term.
2B. Solid Geometry. Emphasis is laid on arithmetical
computation in this course. Text — Wentworth-Smith.
2C. Higher Algebra. A hasty review of the principles of
high school algebra, followed by the solution of higher equations,
detached coefficients, series, and determinants. Elementary al-
gebra must precede this course. Text — Hawke 's Higher Algebra.
3A. Advanced Arithmetic. The work in this term is
taken up from the teacher's standpoint. A knowledge of ele-
mentary arithmetic and high school algebra is required. Text —
3A. Farm Arithmetic and Accounts. This course con-
sists in an application of arithmetical principles to the solution
of the every-day problems of the home and farm, such as esti-
mating the cost of materials for buildings and fences, ditching,
irrigating, road making, food values, dairying, stock raising, in-
surance of farm property, taxation, marketing of farm products,
transportation, etc. Its aim will be to acquaint the students with
the arithmetical processes of which the progressive farmer should
be master. Daily records will be kept to illustrate a simple
method of keeping farm accounts.
3A. Trigonometry. A thorough knowledge of right and
oblique triangles, computations by the use of logarithms and by
natural functions; some field work is attempted in this course.
Text — Wentworth.
3B. Analytical Geometry. Here we take up geometry
from an analytical or algebraic standpoint. A good working
knowledge of algebra and plane geometry must precede this
course. Text — Ashton's Plane and Spherical Analytical Geome-
The Normal Quarterly 45
3C and 4A. Calculus. An elementary course in differen-
tial and integral calculus.
2C. Psychology. A description of the mental processes,
their function in nature, their relation to the nervous system,
and the dynamic tendencies of the mind in broad outline.
Text — Thorndike's Elements of Psychology.
3A. Pedagogy and the Principles of Teaching. Prere-
quisite: Psychology 2C. The essential general principles un-
derlying and determining the whole educative process. Text —
Thorn dyke 's Principles of Teaching.
3B. Applied Psychology. Prerequisites 2C and 3A.
The laws which govern human nature and the principles which
control and direct all mental and physical activity as directly
applied to the art of teaching and schoolroom procedure. Text —
Home's Psychological Principles.
3B. Pedagogy and Observation. Prerequisites: Psychol-
ogy 2C and Pedagogy 3 A. A study of the method of the recita-
tion and work in plan writing. The last seven weeks of this
course are given to special methods of teaching arithmetic, read-
ing, and spelling in the elementary schools. Text — McMurry's
Method of the Recitation.
3C. Pedagogy and Observation. Prerequisite: Pedagogy
and Observation 3B. The content, aims, materials and methods
in teaching literature, language, geography, and history in the
elementary schools. No text-book is used; ample references are
provided in the general and class libraries.
4A. History of Education. A systematic study of the
great educational movements, with greater emphasis upon the
more recent tendencies of modern times as exemplified in Amer-
ica, France and Germany. Text — Monroe's Briefer Course.
4B. School Administration. Problems in Organization,
supervision, and management. The state course of study for
both the elementary and high schools. The state school laws.
Text — Dutton and Snedden.
4B. Rural School Organization. The work in this sub-
ject consists of a study of those problems affecting most vitally
the rural school, consolidation of schools, special taxation, grad-
46 The Normal Quarterly
ing of rural schools, wider use of rural school plant, rural school
architecture, ornamentation of house and grounds, relation of
rural schools to other educational agencies, etc. Also a study of
the tenure of office, qualifications, salaries of rural teachers with
special reference to an improvement of present conditions; a
study of rural life and rural school statistics.
3C, 4A and 4B. Each student in these three classes
spends one period of fifty minutes daily in the practice school.
Half of the period is given to teaching a class, and half to observa-
tion and preparation for the daily critique. Each practice teacher
retains the same class during a period of twelve weeks, at the
end of which both class and subject are changed. One period
weekly is given to observing model lessons taught by the critic
Every lesson taught by student teachers must have careful
preparation, and must be based on written plans submitted to
and approved by the critic teacher. Through actual practice
under the guidance of an experienced and sympathetic critic, ob-
servation of expert teaching, and the discussions in the daily
critique, the student teacher gains skill in the application of edu-
cational principles. The professional instruction received in the
academic and pedagogical departments is here crystallized into
experience. Frequent opportunities are given practice teachers
to have private consultation with their critic teachers and the
head of the training department.
The agricultural work of these three terms is of a very prac-
tical nature, special effort being made to have it relate closely
to conditions as they exist in the State at present. Some time
in each term is devoted to a study of educational agencies em-
ployed in agricultural extension work and of the attitude which
the rural school should maintain towards them.
IB. Origin, formation, type and kinds of soil; water-hold-
ing capacity and water content of soils ; the plant in relation to
soil and moisture ; the influence on plants of humus in the soil ;
The Normal Quarterly 47
and other properties and qualities of soils. Text — Halligan's
Fundamentals of Agriculture.
1C. A study of farm and forage crops; rotation and diversi-
fication, with emphasis on prevailing practices in Louisiana;
stock raising by the average farmer; and best methods in the
production of staple Louisiana crops. Text — Halligan's Funda-
mentals of Agriculture.
2A. This term's work includes a study of home gardening,
fruit growing and commercial trucking profitable in Louisiana.
The last three weeks are devoted to a study of diseases and pests
of garden, field, and orchard. Practical work in gardening,
spraying, constructing hotbeds, etc., is conducted through the
entire course. Text — Halligan's, supplemented by bulletins.
2B. This course includes a study of live stock, their general
care, management, feeding and adaptability to Louisiana con-
ditions. Characteristics of the various breeds and types and
their relation to cost of production are made important items
of consideration. Special attention is given to the chemical com-
position of food stuffs and the compounding of economical bal-
anced rations suited to Louisiana conditions. From this outline
it will be seen that the purpose of the course is to instill among
prospective teachers a greater interest in the live stock industry
of the State, and through the teachers to lead farmers to give
better care to their stock and greater attention to the production
of better breeds and more useful types.
THE PRINCIPLES OF DAIRYING.
2C. The course in dairying comprises the origin, history
and development of the dairy breeds ; the study of the score card
and its use in scoring dairy cattle ; feeding for milk production ;
general care and management of the herd ; soiling crops and sys-
tems best adapted to Louisiana conditions ; silos, their construc-
tion and use; sanitation in the stables, the production of clean
and certified milk; the composition of milk, causes and condi-
tions influencing the quantity and quality ; handling for market
production ; farm butter-making, pasteurization and general care
in the home supply ; the Babcock test, method and purpose. This
48 The Normal Quarterly
course will also include poultry husbandry; the varieties and
their origin; selection, general care, feeding for egg production;
incubation and brooding ; the rearing and care of chicks ; poultry
houses adapted to Louisiana; use of trap nests and some of the
more common diseases of fowls. Text — Michel 's Dairy Farming,
3A. Study of plant morphology, physiology, and ecology,
with stress upon the last two. Laboratory work is done with the
microscope and experiments in germination and plant propaga-
tion carried out in laboratory and field. Identification of com-
mon trees and flowering plants, with a manual, is part of this
term's work. The essential difference of flowering and seedless
plants is taught. Collection of leaves and flowers is made and
note-books kept. Text — Andrew's Complete Botany.
3B. This course is somewhat similar to that of 3A, but
deals more definitely with economic plants, their pollenation,
propagation, enemies and associates. The cryptograms are close-
ly studied so far as time permits ; literature on the subject read,
and field observations made. Note-books are kept and field and
laboratory work required. Text — Bergen and Caldwell.
IIIC. This is an advanced course for teachers. Its scope is
as follows : Bones, their structure, shape and use ; general divi-
sion of the skeleton; kind and structure of joints; hygiene of
spinal column and arch of foot. Muscles, macroscopic and micro-
scopic differentiation; effect of exercise on growth and bodily
powers. The blood, general description, forces and need of cir-
culation; purification of blood, including gross anatomy of
lungs, with special stress on how to breathe ; hygiene concerning
tight clothing, ventilation, and catching cold. Foods, main divi-
sions and use of each variety, anatomy of organs digesting each
kind ; care of teeth. The skin, its anatomy and uses ; bathing and
clothing. The nervous system; use of sympathetic and cerebro-
spinal systems; relation between nerves and muscles; reflex and
voluntary movements. Text — Conn and Budington's Advanced
MAIN ACADEMIC BUILDING. STUDENT BODY. FALL QUARTER, 1911-1912.
The Normal Quarterly 49
HYGIENE AND SANITATION.
4A. The purpose of this course is to equip teachers with a
vital knowledge of individual and community hygiene and sani-
tation. The sociological side of the subject is stressed, and
emphasis is laid on rural sanitation. The course is a continua-
tion of physiology 3C and begins with a review of personal
hygiene. The following subjects are studied: cleanliness in
home, yard, school, street, factory, dairy, and public places; im-
portance and means of and equipment for ; disposal of refuse and
sewerage; the sanitary toilet and soil pollution; the septic tank
and its construction; diseases of children and infectious and
contagious diseases, means of dissemination, diagnosis and treat-
ment; typhoid fever and the house fly; malarial and yellow
fevers and mosquitoes; tuberculosis, its spread, cure, and pre-
vention; the bubonic plague and the rat; the State and County
Boards of Health ; sanitary laws of Louisiana ; organized agencies
IA. This course comprises the study of simple protozoa
and types of each of the higher classes of animals. Collections
are made, specimens preserved, and lantern slides used in fre-
quent lectures. At all times students are encouraged to observe
the life around them with special reference to economic value.
Some dissection is done and the microscope used in the study
of protozoa. Note-books are kept and drawings made. Text —
Her rick's General Zoology.
3C. A few days are given to a general review of protozoa
and microscopic work. The general principles of animal classi-
fication is then taken up and such factors as environment, habi-
tat, and enemies developed by collateral reading and discussion
The study of bird and insect life, their relation to each other, to
man, and to plants studied as bearing upon local or state condi-
tions rather than the world at large. Collections of insects are
made and field observation required and records kept. Text —
Bulletins; Kellogg 's American Insects.
4A. This course covers, though from a broader standpoint,
those given under I A and 3C. Vertebrate forms are studied
to gain some knowledge of comparative anatomy ; the life history
50 The Normal Quarterly
of domesticated animals traced and theses required, or assigned
subjects along this line. Instruction is given in the use of the
microscope, the preservation of specimens, and the making of
collections for the teacher's use. Field and class note-books, with
collateral reading, are required.
The course in Chemistry 2B and 2C is approximately
equivalent to the course offered in the approved high schools of
Louisiana. Advance courses are offered in 3C and 4A to give
the student a broader knowledge of the subject and to qualify
him better as a teacher of this subject. These two courses are
elective. Laboratory work, six hours per week, is required of stu-
dents pursuing these courses. Laboratory note-books are kept
by the students, and the records made at the time the experi-
ments are performed.
2B. A study of the non-metals and some of the principles of
the subject. The laboratory exercises form the basis of the work.
Twenty experiments are required during this term.
2C. A continuation of the non-metals and the most import-
ant metals. Twenty experiments are made, as in the previous
term. Same text.
3C. A more careful study of the laws and principles of the
subject, together with a short course in qualitative analysis.
Texts — Newth's Inorganic Chemistry and Irish's Qualitative
4A. A continuation of Newth's text and a brief course in
I A. The chief aim of the work in this subject is to give
an appreciation of the extent of the industrial development of
Louisiana and the great future possibilities along these lines,
based upon our natural advantages and resources. It tincludes a
study of the chief occupations: agriculture, lumbering, mining,
and commerce; particular attention being given to our com-
mercial advantages in the way of facilities for export trade, nav-
igable streams, railroads, and cheap railroad building, etc.
This study of Louisiana is followed by a study of the same
The Normal Quarterly 51
features of other states and countries, emphasis being given to
those activities bearing the most vital relation to the business
of our own State.
3A. Erosion: Land forms, relief, ground water, running
water. Emphasis on delta and other alluvial lands, lower Mis-
sissippi basin and delta used as type. Economic results stressed.
Vulcanism, accompanying phenomena. Terrestrial magnet-
Earth relations, form, motions, seasons, latitude, longitude,
Atmosphere : Constitution, temperature, thermal maps, pres-
sure, barometer, moisture, evaporation, precipitation.
Great wind and calm belts, economic influences on countries
affected — United States as a type.
Weather maps: Weather bureau, value and use of maps;
interpretation of current maps.
Ocean : Coastal survey, laying of cables, tides, currents.
Aim of entire course is to give a working knowledge of funda-
mentals of physical geography and their influences on mathe-
matical, descriptive and political geography. Text — Salisbury's
The course in physics begins in Term IC. It is the equiva-
lent of the high school course and is intended to give the student
a general knowledge of the subject. This is a prerequisite to
the course offered in 3 A and 3B. The laboratory is well
equipped with the necessary apparatus for individual work and
note-books are kept by each student, the notes being made at the
time the experiment is performed. The note-books are kept in
the laboratory all the time.
Five class periods and two double laboratory periods are re-
quired each week.
IC. Mechanics and heat. Fifteen experiments, both quali-
tative and quantitative in nature, are performed in this term.
Text — Carhart and Chute.
52 The Normal Quarterly
2A. Sound, light and electricity. Twenty experiments as
in IC are performed. Text — Carhart and Chute.
3A. Advanced work in electricity and magnetism. Special
attention is given to the practical side of electricity. A large
amount of laboratory work is done in this course. IC and 2 A
are prerequisites to this course. Text — Ames and Bliss.
2B. Advanced work in mechanics. IC, 2A and Trignome-
try are prerequisites to this course. Text — Ames and Bliss.
3A. An analysis of the structure and working of govern-
ment in the United States and in Louisiana, with some examina-
tion of the historical development of existing forms; reports
from reference books and current literature to acquaint the stu-
dent with source materials. Text — Government in the State and
Nation, James and Sanford.
3B. It is intended that this study shall give a knowledge
of a few of the most important and fundamental principles of
economics as applied to the leading occupations of our people
and the business of the world. It includes a brief survey of a
few of the most important human activities, such as agriculture,
mining, manufacturing and transportation, together with the
relation of such occupations and industries to the needs and
wants of the world. It is expected that such a study will enable
teachers better to understand the great economic problems of the
day and their relation to the governmental functions of our na-
3C. Following the study of general economics, the aim of
this term's work is to develop an appreciation of the great im-
portance of agriculture with its related activities in the affairs
of the world. The history of farming, the weak and strong
features of agriculture as a business, some of the most important
rural problems of the day, the value of organization, and simi-
lar topics receive attention. Particular application of the prin-
ciples studied will be made to the rural South.
The Normal Quarterly 53
IB. Ancient History. A brief study of Oriental nations,
to show their influence on Greece and Rome. Special emphasis
is laid on the influences exerted upon modern nations by Greek
art and culture, Roman law and organization, and Teutonic
blood and customs. Text — Botsford's Ancient History for Be-
IC. Mediaeval History. The invasion and settlement of
the barbarians; the revival of the empire, the growth of the pa-
pacy, and the struggle between the two; Mohammed and his
religion; the Crusades; the rise of nationalities, mediaeval in-
stitutions, and the Renaissance. Text — Myers' Mediaeval and
2A. Modern History. The principal topics treated are:
The Reformation; the religious wars; the struggle for constitu-
tional liberty in England ; the ascendency of France under Louis
XIII and Louis XIV; the rise of Prussia; Engand's colonial su-
premacy; the era of the French Revolution and Napoleon; the
period of reaction and the revolutions of 1830 and 1848; the
nineteenth century; the Eastern question; and a summary of
the progress of civilization in the nineteenth century. While
the primary purpose is to give the student a knowledge of the
political history of the period, due attention is paid to the eco-
nomic, social, and religious movements that are essential to this
subject. Text — Myers' Mediaeval and Modern History.
2B. American History. Study of the great epochs of
American history to give a unified view of the United States
as a whole. The effects of geographical environment upon occu-
pations and of occupations upon social life and government are
emphasized. Text — Doub 's History of the United States.
3B. The American Revolution. An intensive study of the
causes and course of the American Revolution, the States under
the Articles of Confederation, and the making and adoption of
the Constitution. Text — Fiske's Critical Period in American
3C. The American Civil War. A thorough study of the
period 1829 to 1865 in American history. The chief topics are :
slavery as a system; the anti-slavery movement; Texas and the
54 The Normal Quarterly
Mexican War; the Compromise of 1850; the Kansas-Nebraska
question; the Dred Scott case; the rise and triumph of the Re-
publican Party ; the secession of the Southern States ; the course
and results of the war.
4B. The aim of this course is threefold. First, the stu-
dent must grasp the facts in sociology which place it among the
sciences. Second, he must get a knowledge of social conditions
in our own and European countries to use as a basis of compari-
son. Third, he must understand conditions in the South, and in
Louisiana in particular, in the light of this comparison, and be
able to aid in changing these conditions when he goes out in
the State as a teacher.
The stereopticon and collateral reading are to be freely used,
especially in attaining the second part of the aim.
Alby M. Smith Scholarship 23
Alumni Loan Fund 23
Athletics Associations 26
Board of Administrators 4
Boarding department 21
Books and stationery 16
Buildings and land 11
Club rules 22
Courses in mathematics 34
Courses in science 34
Courses of study 32-34
Credit requirements for gradu-
Farm animals 47
Geography, industrial 50
Historical statement 9
Household economics 35-37
Hygiene and Sanitation 49
Language courses 34
Library , 14
Literary societies 25
Lyceum course 28
Manual training and shop work. 37-38
Music courses 38-40
Music rooms 16
Outline of courses 33
Parish scholarships 24-25
Practice teaching 46
Professional work 45-46
Purpose of Normal School 9
Religious societies 26
Requirements for admission.... 16
Required subjects in all courses 34
Rural education course 34
Rural economics -od
Singing and drawing courses. . . 35
Sociology 5 4
Student organizations 25-28
Summer school 29
EVERY STUDENT WILL BE REQUIRED TO PRESENT
(To be filled out and signed by the Parish Health Officer or a
responsible practicing physician.)
This certifies that
of La., is known to me personally ;
1. That . .he is free from consumption and other contagious
2. That . .he has no deformity such as would interfere with
usefulness or success as a teacher.
3. That . .he has not been exposed within fifteen days to
typhoid, yellow or scarlet fever, diphtheria, smallpox or measles ;
4. That . .he is at this day in good health.
(Signed) M. D.
La., , 191....
To the State Normal School, Natchitoches, La.:
This certifies that
of La., is personally known to me, and
that I recommend as a person of good character,
worthy of being admitted to the Normal School to prepare
self for the office of teacher.
, La., , 191...
Applicants not known to the Superintendent may have their
certificates signed by the President of the School Board, Presi-
dent of Police Jury, Sheriff, Clerk, or Judge.